One-megapixel monocrystalline-silicon micromirror array on CMOS driving electronics manufactured with very large-scale heterogeneous integration
In this paper, we demonstrate the first high-resolution spatial-light-modulator chip with 1 million tilting micromirrors made of monocrystalline silicon on analog high-voltage complementary metaloxidesemiconductor driving electronics. This device, as result of a feasibility study, shows good optical and excellent mechanical properties. The micromirrors exhibit excellent surface properties, with a surface roughness below 1-nm root mean square. Actuated micromirrors show no imprinting behavior and operate drift free. Very large-scale heterogeneous integration was used to fabricate the micromirror arrays. The detailed fabrication process is presented in this paper, together with a characterization of the SLM devices. Large arrays of individually controllable micromirrors are the enabling component in high-perfomance mask-writing systems and promising for high throughput deep-ultraviolet maskless lithography systems. The adoption of new materials with enhanced characteristi cs is critical in meeting the challenging demands with regard to surface quality and operation stability in the future. Very large-scale heterogeneous integration may enable virtually any solid-state material to be integrated together with CMOS electronics.