On short glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics with high fiber orientation and the influence of surface roughness on mechanical parameters
Injection molding is a common process for manufacturing thermoplastic polymers. Preconnected to fabrication, mechanically loaded parts are examined in structural simulation. A crucial prerequisite for a valid structural simulation for any material is the underlying material data. To determine this data, different phenomena must be considered such as influences of load type, strain rate, environmental conditions and in case of fiber reinforced materials the fiber orientation (FO) in the considered area. Because of rheological effects, injection molded parts often possess a non-homogeneous FO distribution. This makes it challenging to create testing plates for specimen extraction with a well-defined FO over thickness and width in the considered area. In this paper, a novel testing part is introduced with an unidirectionally oriented testable area. It shows a FO degree of more than 0.75, which has been validated with m-CT measurement and two thermoplastic materials: polyamide and polybutylene terephthalate, both reinforced with 30 weight percent of short glass fibers. In order to resolve influences of the already addressed FO distribution in injection molded parts, tensile test specimens need to be extracted out of specially designed plates via milling and cannot be injection molded directly. Experiments were carried out to study possible effects of preparation on the mechanical properties of specimens with both materials and two milling parameter sets. The first milling parameter set creates reproducible surface roughnesses, whereas the second parameter set shows a correlation between FO and roughness value: when milling perpendicularly to the main FO lower roughnesses are reached than milling in fiber direction. Uncertainties of the normalized rupture strain from orthogonally extracted specimens seem to be larger than the values from those extracted in fiber direction.