Sensitivity of Ultrasonic Coda Wave Interferometry to Material Damage - Observations from a Virtual Concrete Lab
Ultrasonic measurements are used in civil engineering for structural health monitoring of concrete infrastructures. The late portion of the ultrasonic wavefield, the coda, is sensitive to small changes in the elastic moduli of the material. Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) correlates these small changes in the coda with the wavefield recorded in intact, or unperturbed, concrete specimen to reveal the amount of velocity change that occurred. CWI has the potential to detect localized damages and global velocity reductions alike. In this study, the sensitivity of CWI to different types of concrete mesostructures and their damage levels is investigated numerically. Realistic numerical concrete models of concrete specimen are generated, and damage evolution is simulated using the discrete element method. In the virtual concrete lab, the simulated ultrasonic wavefield is propagated from one transducer using a realistic source signal and recorded at a second transducer. Different damage scenarios reveal a different slope in the decorrelation of waveforms with the observed reduction in velocities in the material. Finally, the impact and possible generalizations of the findings are discussed, and recommendations are given for a potential application of CWI in concrete at structural scale.