Cell-Type Targeted NF-kappaB Inhibition for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases
Deregulated NF-k activation is not only involved in cancer but also contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Ideally, therapeutic NF-KappaB inhibition should only take place in those cell types that are involved in disease pathogenesis to maintain physiological cell functions in all other cells. In contrast, unselective NF-kappaB inhibition in all cells results in multiple adverse effects, a major hindrance in drug development. Hitherto, various substances exist to inhibit different steps of NF-kappaB signaling. However, powerful tools for cell-type specific NF-kappaB inhibition are not yet established. Here, we review the role of NF-kappaB in inflammatory diseases, current strategies for drug delivery and NF-kappaB inhibition and point out the "sneaking ligand" approach. Sneaking ligand fusion proteins (SLFPs) are recombinant proteins with modular architecture consisting of three domain s. The prototype SLC1 binds specifically to the activated endothelium and blocks canonical NF-kappaB activation. In vivo, SLC1 attenuated clinical and histological signs of experimental arthritides. The SLFP architecture allows an easy exchange of binding and effector domains and represents an attractive approach to study disease-relevant biological targets in a broad range of diseases. In vivo, SLFP treatment might increase therapeutic efficacy while minimizing adverse effects.