Assessment of flexible electric vehicle charging in a sector coupling energy system model - Modelling approach and case study
The transition of the motorized private transport sector from fossil fuel to electricity-based technologies is a widely discussed strategy that can contribute towards the achievement of the set climate protection targets. To accurately analyse the challenges and opportunities associated with this transition, the entire energy system needs to be considered in a holistic way. This study introduces two different methodological approaches for the assessment of battery electric vehicles. Both are implemented into the sector coupling, structure optimising model REMod and assessed for a future, nearly CO2 neutral German energy system. The results show that realistic driving profiles could lead to simultaneous vehicle charging, which result in higher peak loads and eventually require an increase in power plant capacity. The model shows that once vehicles are charged irrespective of the residual load, electricity-demanding technologies throughout all sectors are progressively replaced by hydrogen or other gas-based technologies, as these options do not lead to an increase in electricity demand. This development negatively impacts the deployment of electric heat pumps and battery electric vehicles, which would play a major role otherwise. The cost-optimal system configuration can be achieved through implementation of a controlled charging strategy, shaving power load and supply peaks, integrating more power from variable renewable energy sources and reducing the yearly overall system costs by several billion Euros.