In vivo analysis of covering materials composed of biodegradable polymers enriched with flax fibers
Background / The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of bioactive composites with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) as the matrix, reinforced with bioplastic flax fibers, on the surrounding muscle tissue. // Methods / Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers from genetically modified plants producing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified plants (PLA-wt, PCL-wt) were placed subcutaneous on the M. latissimus dorsi for four weeks. // Results / The analysis of histological samples revealed that every tested material was differently encapsulated and the capsule thickness is much more pronounced when using the PCL composites in comparison with the PLA composites. The encapsulation by connective tissue was significantly reduced around PCL-transgen and significantly increased in the cases of PLA-transgen and PLA-wt. In the collected muscle samples, the measured protein expression of CD45, lymphocyte common antigen, was significantly increased after the use of all tested materials, with the exception of pure PCL. In contrast, the protein expression of caveolin-1 remained unchanged after treatment with the most examined materials. Only after insertion of PLA-wt, a significant increase of caveolin-1 protein expression was detected, due to the improved neovascularization. // Conclusion / These data support the presumption that the new bioactive composites are biocompatible and they could be applicable in the medical field to support the regenerative processes.