Large animals in neurointerventional research: A systematic review on models, techniques and their application in endovascular procedures for stroke, aneurysms and vascular malformations
Neuroendovascular procedures have led to breakthroughs in the treatment of ischemic stroke, intracranial aneurysms, and intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Due to these substantial successes, there is continuous development of novel and refined therapeutic approaches. Large animal models feature various conceptual advantages in translational research, which makes them appealing for the development of novel endovascular treatments. However, the availability and role of large animal models have not been systematically described so far. Based on comprehensive research in two databases, this systematic review describes current large animal models in neuroendovascular research including their primary use. It may therefore serve as a compact compendium for researchers entering the field or looking for opportunities to refine study concepts. It also describes particular applications for ischemic stroke and aneurysm therapy, as well as for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations. It focuses on most promising study designs and readout parameters, as well as on important pitfalls in endovascular translational research including ways to circumvent them.