Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-positive extracellular vesicles in urine - A potential liquid biopsy Strategy for prostate cancer diagnosis?
All cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) to communicate with adjacent and distant cells. Consequently, circulating EVs are found in all bodily fluids, providing information applicable for liquid biopsy in early cancer diagnosis. Studies observed an overexpression of the membrane-bound prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) on prostate cancer cells. To investigate whether EVs derived from communicating prostate cells allow for reliable conclusions on prostate cancer development, we isolated PSMA-positive, as well as CD9-positive, EVs from cell-free urine with the use of magnetic beads. These populations of EVs were subsequently compared to CD9-positive EVs isolated from female urine in Western blotting, indicating the successful isolation of prostate-derived and ubiquitous EVs, respectively. Furthermore, we developed a device with an adapted protocol that enables an automated immunomagnetic enrichment of EVs of large sample volumes (up to 10 mL), while simultaneously reducing the overall bead loss and hands-on time. With an in-house spotted antibody microarray, we characterized PSMA as well as other EV surface markers of a prostate cohort of 44 urine samples in a more simplified way. In conclusion, the automated and specific enrichment of EVs from urine has a high potential for future diagnostic applications.
Aerchlimann, Keshia Aaliyah