Status of and prospects for cadmium substitution. Product-related protection against emissions
About 2069 t of cadmium were used in West Germany in 1979. Intensive efforts reduced cadmium consumption to 1079 t in 1981. Since then a weak increase in cadmium consumption can be observed. Other industrialized countries use much less cadmium, at least in certain industry fields. Newly developed PVC-stabilizers based on calcium/zink behave so exellent in laboratory tests, that PVC-processors probably do entirely without cadmium on a medium term. Individual solutions have to be found for the substitution of cadmium pigments. Cadmium pigments can not be substituted in red ceramic glazes, red and yellow signal lights, and a few very demanding plastic applications. Cadmium for corrosion protection can be substituted by zink or better zink/nickel alloys. If additional functions are asked from the coating materials, individual solutions have to be found. The use of nickel/cadmium accumulators increases world wide. A substitution of these batteries is only possible in marginal areas, an effi cient recycling system has to be established.