Spatial and temporal variation of sources contributing to quasi-ultrafine particulate matter PM0.36 in Augsburg, Germany
Objective: To study the sources contributing to quasi-ultrafine particle (UFP) organic carbon and the spatial temporal variability of the sources. Method: 24 h quasi-UFP (particulate matter <0.36 mm in this study) was sampled at a reference site continuously and at one of 5 other sites (T1, T2, T3, T4 and B1) in parallel in Augsburg, Germany from April 11th, 2014 to February 22nd, 2015, attempting to conduct 2-week campaigns at each site in 3 different seasons. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to measured organic tracers for source apportionment analyses. Pearson correlation coefficient r and coefficient of divergence (COD) were calculated to investigate spatial temporal variation of source contributions. Result. 5 sources were identified comprising biomass burning (BB), traffic emissions (Traffic), biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bioSOA), isoprene originated secondary organic aerosol (isoSOA) and biomass burning related secondary organic aerosol (bbSOA). In general, good temporal correlation and uniform distribution within the study area are found for bioSOA and bbSOA, probably resulting from regional formation/transport. Lower temporal correlation and spatial heterogeneity of isoSOA were found at the city background site with local influence from green space and less traffic impact. BB demonstrated very good temporal correlation, but higher contributions at sites influenced by local residential heating emissions were observed. Traffic showed the least seasonality and lower correlation over time among the sources. However, it demonstrated low spatial heterogeneity of absolute contribution, and only a few days of elevated contribution was found at T3 when wind came directly from the street nearby. Conclusion: Temporal correlation and spatial variability of sources contributing to the organic fraction of quasi-UFP vary among sites and source types and show source-specific characteristics. Therefore, caution should be taken when using one monitor site measurement to assess human exposure in health effect studies of quasi-UFP.