Significance of calcium phosphate coatings for the enhancement of new bone osteogenesis - a review
A systematic analysis of results available from in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials on the effects of biocompatible calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings is presented. An overview of the most frequently used methods to prepare CaP-based coatings was conducted. Dense, homogeneous, highly adherent and biocompatible CaP or hybrid organic/inorganic CaP coatings with tailored properties can be deposited. It has been demonstrated that CaP coatings have a significant effect on the bone regeneration process. In vitro experiments using different cells (e.g. SaOS-2, human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblast-like cells) have revealed that CaP coatings enhance cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation to promote bone regeneration. However, in vivo, the exact mechanism of osteogenesis in response to CaP coatings is unclear; indeed, there are conflicting reports of the effectiveness of CaP coatings, with results ranging from highly effective to no significant or even negati ve effects. This review therefore highlights progress in CaP coatings for orthopaedic implants and discusses the future research and use of these devices. Currently, an exciting area of research is in bioactive hybrid composite CaP-based coatings containing both inorganic (CaP coating) and organic (collagen, bone morphogenetic proteins, arginylglycylaspartic acid etc.) components with the aim of promoting tissue ingrowth and vascularization. Further investigations are necessary to reveal the relative influences of implant design, surgical procedure, and coating characteristics (thickness, structure, topography, porosity, wettability etc.) on the long-term clinical effects of hybrid CaP coatings. In addition to commercially available plasma spraying, other effective routes for the fabrication of hybrid CaP coatings for clinical use still need to be determined and current progress is discussed.