Now showing 1 - 10 of 10507
  • Publication
    Exploring the ambivalent nature of diversity in social experimental settings: First insights from social labs established to promote responsible research and innovation
    ( 2023) ;
    Bührer-Topçu, Susanne
    Research has provided ample evidence for the performance-enhancing effect of diversity on a wide range of organizational outcomes (Terjesen et al. 2009). The positive effects are manifold and range from better decision-making and corporate governance through better financial performance (Post and Byron 2015), more creativity and innovativeness to more responsible and ethical business conduct (Pechersky et al. 2016). In the context of Research & Innovation (R & I), the cooperation of a diversity of stakeholders has been shown to promote more responsible or ethical business practices (Wood 2002).
  • Publication
    The institutionalisation of a new paradigm at policy level
    The concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has experienced a remarkable career within the European Union's policies for funding research and innovation, culminating in the embedding of RRI as a cross-cutting issue in the Horizon 2020 (H2020) framework programme. However, despite favourable conditions, empirical evidence shows that efforts to mainstream RRI at the level of policy practice and implementation by and large failed. With the aim of better understanding the reasons for the limited success of mainstreaming RRI, the authors draw on the concept of Deep Institutionalisation (DI) and adapt it to the analysis of institutionalisation processes related to policy practice and implementation. The adapted DI concept is applied to H2020 by using recent findings from RRI research to provide empirical illustration. The results suggest that key preconditions for the successful institutionalisation of RRI policies were not fulfilled. Specifically, broader policy debates reaching beyond the confines of a small policy arena within the European Commission, a lack of experimental embedding allowing for adjustment to different contexts, and the development of ownership in particular were not achieved. Building on the cornerstones of the DI concept, the authors conclude that attempts to mainstream RRI in H2020 have been premature.
  • Publication
    What's in it for me? Self-interest and preferences for distribution of costs and benefits of energy efficiency policies
    ( 2023)
    Fanghella, Valeria
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    Faure, Corinne
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    Guetlein, Marie-Charlotte
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    Public acceptability appears an essential condition for the success of low-carbon transition policies. In this paper, we investigate the role of self-interest on citizens’ preferences for the distribution of costs and environmental benefits of energy efficiency policies. Using a discrete choice experiment on nationally representative household samples of Sweden, Italy, and the United Kingdom, we first investigate preferences for national burden-sharing rules and for the distribution of environmental benefits accruing primarily in rural and/or urban areas. We examine the role of self-interest and self-serving bias in a correlational manner by looking at the effects of income and location of residency on preferences for these policy attributes. Moreover, we investigate the effect of self serving bias on preferences for burden-sharing rules in a causal manner by experimentally priming randomly assigned groups of participants to feel either rich or poor. Our results suggest that the accountability rule is the most popular and the equal-amount rule the least popular burden-sharing rule. Further, policies with environ mental benefits accruing primarily in rural areas are least preferred. We find some evidence for self-interest, especially through our correlational approach. Finally, across country samples, our results reveal heterogene ity in preferences for policy attributes and in the prevalence of self-interest.
  • Publication
    The impact of plug-in behavior on the spatial-temporal flexibility of electric vehicle charging load
    ( 2023)
    Gschwendtner, Christine
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    Knoeri, Christof
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    Stephan, Annegret
    While electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to support decarbonizing transport, EVs can challenge the electricity system. Investigating the EV charging load and its flexibility, e.g., by shifting load, is therefore crucial to ensure a secure and sustainable energy system. We develop an agent-based model to investigate how different plug-in behaviors can affect (future) EV charging load profiles and their spatial–temporal flexibility. We contribute to extant literature by (1) revealing the effect of diverse plug-in behaviors on EV load profiles, particularly the flexibility potential resulting from different plug-in behaviors; (2) presenting the (future) charging load in different spatial structures, i.e. urban, rural, or suburban, and home, work, or public charging locations; and (3) demonstrating the effect of detailed driving profiles in high spatial and temporal resolution. We implement three future scenarios regarding EV and charging infrastructure diffusion and technology developments. We find that the impact of potential changes in plug-in behavior on EV charging load would be highest for urban areas and increases as charging infrastructure becomes more spatially diversified. Decision-makers in policy and industry can use these insights to evaluate the impact of EV charging on distribution grids and design incentives to leverage the flexibility potential of EVs.
  • Publication
    The energy efficiency gap in the rental housing market: It takes both sides to build a bridge
    ( 2023)
    Lambin, Xavier
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    Faure, Corinne
    We revisit the issue of the energy efficiency (EE) gap by explicitly acknowledging the two-sided nature of the rental housing market and two-sided asymmetries of information between tenants and landlords. Employing a theoretical matching model, we show that Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) that signal a dwelling’s energy performance induce optimal EE investments by landlords only if tenants pay their energy expenditures in full. When landlords pay part of the energy expenditures, they seek tenants who will conserve energy. Our model shows that asymmetry of information over tenant characteristics results in suboptimally low investments in EE. This may even render EPCs counterproductive. As a remedy, we show that tenant-side signaling needs to be rolled out jointly with EPCs and may even be sufficient when contracts include energy expenditures. Data from an original survey provides support for these insights and suggests that information on the tenants’ side contributes to more EE investment.
  • Publication
    Public engagement in the tradition of participatory approaches - An approximation
    ( 2023) ; ;
    Wunderle, Ulrike
    Public engagement is viewed as a prominent aspect of responsible research and innovation (RRI) both in academia and policy circles. In our paper, we would like to contribute to refining the notion of public participation as an RRI element by assessing the potential of four domains of participatory R & I theory and practices that have to date received little recognition in the RRI context: 1. Participatory design, 2. user-led innovation, 3. participatory research and 4. systemic R & I policy instruments. We test the usefulness of our concepts with a set of case studies from a recent RRI research project.
  • Publication
    The drama of responsible research and innovation: The ups and downs of a policy concept
    ( 2023)
    Griessler, Erich
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    Braun, Robert
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    Wicher, Magdalena
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    This contribution addresses the question why Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is facing problems to succeed as concept for research and innovation policy in the European Commission, despite the EC's 20 years of history of funding research activities and coordination and support actions that address science and society relations. Our analysis highlights four interrelated elements that contribute to the instability of RRI as policy concept, i.e. semantic, legal, financial and institutional fragility. We use Sabatier’s advocacy coalition approach (1998) to explain how these elements of fragility developed and how the ups and downs of RRI as policy concept played out. We identify three opposing advocacy coalitions with regards to RRI and analyze their belief systems and resources.
  • Publication
    Knowledge and technology transfer via publications, patents, standards: Exploring the hydrogen technological innovation system
    ( 2023)
    Asna Ashari, Parsa
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    Koch, Claudia
    Clean technologies play a crucial role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and protecting the climate. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier and fuel that can be used in many applications. We explore the global hydrogen technological innovation system (TIS) by analyzing the three knowledge and technology transfer channels of publications, patents, and standards. Since the adoption of hydrogen technologies requires trust in their safety, this study specifically also focuses on hydrogen safety. Our results show that general and hydrogen safety research has increased significantly while patenting experienced stagnation. An analysis of the non-patent literature in safety patents shows little recognition of scientific publications. Similarly, publications are underrepresented in the analyzed 75 international hydrogen and fuel cell standards. This limited transfer of knowledge from published research to standards points to the necessity for greater involvement of researchers in standardization. We further derive implications for the hydrogen TIS and recommendations for a better and more impactful alignment of the three transfer channels.
  • Publication
    Potentials of direct air capture and storage in a greenhouse gas-neutral European energy system
    ( 2023) ;
    Schneck, Niklas
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    Männer, Wolfgang
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    Negative emission technologies will likely be needed to achieve the European Commission's goal of greenhouse gas neutrality by 2050. This article investigates the potential of reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere via the DACCS pathway, i.e., to capture CO2 from the ambient air and permanently store it in geological formations. Since the capture of CO2 from ambient air is energy-intensive, this study particularly models the integration of DACCS plants into a greenhouse gas-neutral European energy system. The model results show that DACCS in Europe 2050 could cost between 160 €/tCO2 and 270 €/tCO2 with very conservative techno-economic assumptions and between 60 €/tCO2 and 140 €/tCO2 using more progressive parameters. Annually capturing 5% of Europe's 1990 emissions with a fully electric DACCS system would increase the capacities of onshore wind by 80–119 GWel and PV by 85–126 GWel. In the model results, Sweden, the Iberian Peninsula, Norway, and Finland incorporate the essential characteristics for a successful deployment of capturing and storing CO2 from ambient air: Sufficiently large geological CO2 storage capacities and relatively low-cost, vacant renewable power generation potentials. The low DACCS costs could minimize the cost of combating climate change and prevent the implementation of more expensive mitigation strategies. On the other hand, a DACCS-based climate protection strategy is fraught with the risks of CO2 storage leaks, acceptance problems for the additional required expansion of renewable energies, and premature depletion of global CO2 storage potentials.