Now showing 1 - 10 of 6158
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Flexibles AM ermöglicht wettbewerbsfähige Produktion

2024-05 , Müller, Vinzenz , Fasselt, Janek Maria , Klötzer-Freese, Christian , Kruse, Tobias , Wagner, Florian

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Numerical and experimental assessment of liquid metal embrittlement in externally loaded spot welds

2024-01-30 , Prabitz, Konstantin , Antretter, Thomas , Rethmeier, Michael , El-Sari, Bassel , Schubert, Holger , Hilpert, Benjamin , Gruber, Martin , Sierlinger, Robert , Ecker, Werner

Zinc-based surface coatings are widely applied with high-strength steels in automotive industry. Some of these base materials show an increased brittle cracking risk during loading. It is necessary to examine electrogalvanized and uncoated samples of a high strength steel susceptible to liquid metal embrittlement during spot welding with applied external load. Therefore, a newly developed tensile test method with a simultaneously applied spot weld is conducted. A fully coupled 3D electrical, thermal, metallurgical and mechanical finite element model depicting the resistant spot welding process combined with the tensile test conducted is mandatory to correct geometric influences of the sample geometry and provides insights into the sample’s time dependent local loading. With increasing external loads, the morphology of the brittle cracks formed is affected more than the crack depth. The validated finite element model applies newly developed damage indicators to predict and explain the liquid metal embrittlement cracking onset and development as well as even ductile failure.

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Comparison of Ethereum Smart Contract Analysis and Verification Methods

2024 , Happersberger, Vincent , Jäkel, Frank-Walter , Knothe, Thomas , Pignolet, Yvonne Anne , Schmid, Stefan

Ethereum allows to publish and use applications known as smart contracts on its public network. Smart contracts can be costly for users if erroneous. Various security vulnerabilities have occurred in the past and have been exploited causing the loss of billions of dollars. Therefore, it is in the developer’s interest to publish smart contracts that serve their intended purpose only. In this work, we study different approaches to verify if Ethereum smart contracts behave as intended and how to detect possible vulnerabilities. To this end, we compare and evaluate, different formal verification tools and tools to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Our empirical comparison of 140 smart contracts with known vulnerabilities shows that different tools vary in their success to identify issues with smart contracts. In general, we find that automated analysis tools often miss vulnerabilities, while formal verifiers based on model checking with Hoare-style source code annotations require high effort and knowledge to discover possible weaknesses. Specifically, some vulnerabilities (e.g., related to bad randomness) are not detected by any of the tools. Formal verifiers perform better than automated analysis tools as they detect more vulnerabilities and are more reliable. One of the automated analysis tools was able to find only three out of 16 Access Control vulnerabilities. On the contrary, formal verifiers have a hundred percent detection rate for selected tests. As a case study with a smart contract without previously known vulnerabilities and for a more in-depth evaluation, we examine a smart contract using a two-phase commit protocol mechanism which is key in many smart contract applications. We use the presented tools to analyze and verify the contract. Thereby we come across different important patterns to detect vulnerabilities e.g. with respect to re-entrancy, and how to annotate a contract to prove that intended the restriction and requirements hold at any time.

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Nachhaltige Reinigung und Präparation

2024 , Uhlmann, Eckart , Polte, Julian , Burgdorf, Philipp , Reder, Waldemar

In der Fertigungstechnik lautet aktuell die Devise, innovative Wege für mehr Nachhaltigkeit zu entdecken. Für industrielle Reinigungsprozesse ist das CO2-Strahlen auf dem Vormarsch - im Beitrag wird beschrieben, warum.

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Digital Twins within the Circular Economy: Literature Review and Concept Presentation

2024-03-26 , Mügge, Janine , Seegrün, Anne , Hoyer, Tessa-Katharina , Riedelsheimer, Theresa , Lindow, Kai

Digital twins offer a promising approach to sustainable value creation by providing specific life cycle data and enabling the monitoring and implementation of circular economy strategies throughout the product’s life cycle. By analyzing product, component, and material data, as well as process data, it is possible to create transparency throughout a product’s life cycle, build a data-driven product ecosystem, and establish new business and value creation models, from SMEs to large enterprises. This paper identifies application scenarios, their technological readiness level, and the challenges of digital twins for the circular economy in the manufacturing industry based on a systematic literature review. Gaps such as ensuring a continuous flow of information and taking into account the different levels of digitalization of companies are identified. As a main result, a holistic concept for the scoping of a digital twin for the circular economy is presented. One specific use case for end-of-life decision-making is elaborated upon. It is shown that the circular economy can be supported by digital twin data, especially for the optimal decision on end-of-life vehicles.

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KI zur Prozessüberwachung im Unterpulverschweißen

2024-01-15 , El-Sari, Bassel , Gook, Sergej , Biegler, Max , Rethmeier, Michael

Beim Unterpulverschweißen sind die Prozessgeräusche ein Indikator für eine gute Fügequalität. Diese Beurteilung kann i.d.R. nur von einer erfahrenen Fachkraft durchgeführt werden. Eine kürzlich entwickelte künstliche Intelligenz kann automatisch das akustische Prozesssignal anhand vortrainierter Merkmale klassifizieren und die Fügequalität anhand des Geräuschs beurteilen. Der Algorithmus, einmal richtig trainiert, kann den Prüfaufwand beim Unterpulverschweißen deutlich reduzieren.

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Dynamic error characteristics of robot motion analyzed for the suitability of visual-servoing

2024 , Radke, Marcel , Haninger, Kevin , Kröger, Ole , Krumpek, Oliver

The knowledge of the absolute positioning accuracy of a robotic arm is crucial to assess the feasibility of certain tasks. In evaluating the feasibility, a robot manipulator as well as a possibly external sensing system must be chosen. In choosing a robot arm, lightweight robots are often preferred because they require less safety precautions, but they can also be less accurate compared to a stiff industrial robot. A stiff industrial robot resists external loads better, resulting in a higher accuracy with payload or process forces, and oscillates less in motions. Additionally, typical robot inaccuracies must be considered: (i) absolute positioning errors due to kinematic model errors, (ii) error due to resonance or external forces, (iii) path-following errors from limitations in the dynamic model and control. For tasks where the goal object has an unknown or varying pose, its pose can be measured with a vision system and used to compensate the robot motion. When the measurement and compensation is done continuously, it realizes closed-loop visual servoing. This can reduce the absolute error, but only the components of the error which are of a low frequency relative to the motion control bandwidth of the robot. To evaluate whether a specific robot can meet a certain accuracy requirements with a visual servoing system, better understanding about the characteristics of the robot error is needed. For example, the frequency distribution of the robot error can indicate what proportion can be compensated with closed loop control - only that less than the position bandwidth of the robot (typically 3-7 Hz). Datasheets typically provide the accuracy value only for repeatability while the accuracy during motion and the influence of dynamic effects are ignored. If the endeffector oscillates during motion causing a positional error and at which frequency is typically not reported - leaving unanswered, if it can be compensated by control. The contribution of this paper is the experimental evaluation of an absolute accuracy during the robot motion, towards evaluating the accuracy with a visual servoing system. A tracker system is used to collect the motion data of a CNC milling machine, a Universal Robots UR5, and an industrial robot (Comau Racer7-1.4) under various motion speeds. The frequency distribution and histograms of the error are analysed with regard to possible sources and the suitability to reduction with visual servoing.

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Qualitätssicherung beim Laser-Pulver-Auftragschweißen

2024-02-01 , Lemke, Josefine

In der modernen Fertigungstechnik spielt der Einsatz von korrosionsbeständigem Stahl eine große Rolle. Die kohlenstoffarme Edelstahllegierung 1.4404 (AISI 316L) ist ein häufig eingesetzter Werkstoff in der additiven Fertigung. Hier kann das Laser-Pulver-Auftragschweißen (LPA), engl. Directed Energy Deposition DED-LB, das weit verbreitete Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) aufgrund höherer Auftragsraten und seiner Flexibilität in einigen Bereichen ergänzen und sogar ersetzen. Mit interessanten Perspektiven in der Bremsscheibenfertigung für Automobile.

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Implementing human-robot collaboration in highly dynamic environments: Assessment, planning and development

2024 , Bastidas Cruz, Arturo , Jaya, T. , Thiele, Gregor , Krüger, Jörg

Human-robot collaboration (HRC) applications have been slowly making their path in the industry. Although the required hardware and the methods for the planning and development of collaborative robotic applications are mostly already developed, some industrial branches still struggle to implement HRC. This is the case in motorcycle production, where, unlike car production, the assembly line has been optimized for manual work. Based on the use case described above, this paper identifies new requirements of HRC for automated screwing assembly operations in flexible production environments. In order to compensate deviations in the position of the tool relative to the workpiece, a screwing strategy based on force control is proposed. Parameter sensitivity is considered and supported experimentally with a screwing task performed by a cobot, where a method for contact detection between the nutrunner and the screw head is analyzed. This paper brings a guideline for experts from the manufacturing system engineering to implement HRC in highly dynamic assembly environments.

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Investigation on stereo-ToF data fusion for the inspection of used industrial parts

2024 , Krumpek, Oliver , Schlüter, Marian , Hügle, Johannes

Optical systems for automated or partially automated inspection have been making important contributions to ensure the quality and functionality of technical products for many years. Often used to monitor the quality of newly produced goods, vision systems also aim to play an important role in identification and condition description of used industrial parts such as aged vehicle components. In this work, a passive stereo system and a Time-of-Flight (ToF) sensor of the latest generation were used to create the desired sensor system. In the first step, the pixel-based information of both sensors was exploited to spatially calibrate the transformation between the left stereo camera and the ToF sensor by forming a 2D-3D correspondence set of detected feature points. To compensate for the resolution difference of the sensors, numerous interpolation points were randomly sampled on the reconstructed sparse surface mesh of the ToF sensor to create the missing sub-pixel information. It could be shown that the fused sensor information led to an increase in incompleteness by 7.81% on average for all components examined. The higher noise in the ToF measurement data in the fill-ins could be mitigated by using an adapted median kernel filtering. The average deviation of the measurement from a reference dataset was 1.30mm for the stereo system, 2.51mm for the ToF system, and 1.42mm for the fused result. The result of this work is promising as the quality of the surface mesh could be raised especially for critical surface areas and the underlying RGB data itself can be used for pixel-wise classification and segmentation.