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Under water glued stud bonding fasteners for offshore structures

: Myslicki, Sebastian; Kordy, Heinrich; Kaufmann, Marvin; Créac'hcadec, Romain; Vallée, Till


International journal of adhesion and adhesives 98 (2020), Art. 102533
ISSN: 0143-7496
ISSN: 1879-0127
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IFAM ()
under water; joint design; epoxy / epoxides; polyurethane; durability

The installation of offshore wind turbines has achieved rapid and substantial progress worldwide and further increase is predicted by enhanced technologies that will reduce costs and increase service time. Secondary structures applied to the primary structure, as the transition piece of a monopole, can be e.g. cable support, boat landing or anode systems. These structures are often welded, which leads to problematic notch effects and hydrogen embrittlement, especially for underwater applications. Also the handling of technical equipment as power current or artificial housings for scuba divers for underwater welding is challenging. Adhesive bonding will lead to cost reduction as the mentioned negative aspects can be avoided. The corrosion protection coating and the primary structure will no longer be damaged and therefore do not need a subsequent coating. This article focuses on the area which is permanently exposed to water. A critical point is how the capability to form adhesion and cohesion, will be influenced by the application process under water. Therefore, stud bonding fasteners are designed that enable the injection of adhesive to the bonding area under water. The load capacities for different adhesives, surface pre-treatments and the degradation by exposure to artificial sea water were investigated. Adhesion was achieved with two different adhesives, which were able to cure and realize reasonable strength under water. Furthermore, two selected coating systems were able to improve the performance of the adhesive bond.