Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationIn situ microstructure analysis of Inconel 625 during laser powder bed fusion( 2022)
;Schmeiser, F. ;Krohmer, E. ;Wagner, C. ;Schell, N. ;Uhlmann, E.Reimers, W.Laser powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing process that employs highly focused laser radiation for selective melting of a metal powder bed. This process entails a complex heat flow and thermal management that results in characteristic, often highly textured microstructures, which lead to mechanical anisotropy. In this study, high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out to illuminate the formation and evolution of microstructural features during LPBF. The nickel-base alloy Inconel 625 was used for in situ experiments using a custom LPBF system designed for these investigations. The diffraction patterns yielded results regarding texture, lattice defects, recrystallization, and chemical segregation. A combination of high laser power and scanning speed results in a strong preferred crystallographic orientation, while low laser power and scanning speed showed no clear texture. The observation of a constant gauge volume revealed solid-state texture changes without remelting. They were related to in situ recrystallization processes caused by the repeated laser scanning. After recrystallization, the formation and growth of segregations were deduced from an increasing diffraction peak asymmetry and confirmed by ex situ scanning transmission electron microscopy.
PublicationMultiple-Wire Submerged Arc Welding of High-Strength Fine-Grained SteelsEnsuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed.
PublicationMethodology for a reverse engineering process chain with focus on customized segmentation and iterative closest point algorithms( 2022)
; ;Schröder, RobertStark, RainerOne-off construction is characterized by a multiplicity of manual manufacturing processes whereby it is based on consistent use of digital models. Since the actual state of construction does not match the digital models without manually updating them, the authors propose a method to automatically detect deviations and reposition the model data according to reality. The first essential method is based on the ""Segmentation of Unorganized Points and Recognition of Simple Algebraic Surfaces"" presented by Vanco et al.. The second method is the customization of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. The authors present the overall structure of the implemented software, based on open source and relate it to the general reverse engineering (RE) framework by Buonamici et al.. A highlight will be given on: the general architecture of the software prototype; a customized segmentation and clustering of unorganized points and recognition of simple algebraic surfaces; the deviation analysis with a customized iterative closest point (CICP) algorithm Especially in the field of one-off construction, characterized by small and medium companies, automated assessment of 3D scan data during the design process is still in its infancy. By using an open source environment progress for consistent use of digital models could be accelerated.
PublicationCharacterization of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Multilayer Laser Powder-Based Directed Energy Deposition( 2022)
;Ávila Calderón, Luis Alexander ;Graf, Benjamin ;Rehmer, Birgit ;Petrat, Torsten ;Skrotzki, BirgitLaser powder-based directed energy deposition (DED-L) is increasingly being used in additive manufacturing (AM). As AM technology, DED-L must consider specific challenges. It must achieve uniform volume growth over hundreds of layers and avoid heat buildup of the deposited material. Herein, Ti-6Al-4V is fabricated using an approach that addresses these challenges and is relevant in terms of transferability to DED-L applications in AM. The assessment of the obtained properties and the discussion of their relationship to the process conditions and resulting microstructure are presented. The quality of the manufacturing process is proven in terms of the reproducibility of properties between individual blanks and with respect to the building height. The characterization demonstrates that excellent mechanical properties are achieved at room temperature and at 400 C.
PublicationNumerical investigation into cleanability of support structures produced by powder bed fusion technology( 2022)
;Campana, G. ;Uhlmann, E. ;Mele, M. ;Raffaelli, L. ;Bergmann, A. ;Kochan, J.Polte, J.Purpose: Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced through a proper design of these auxiliary structures. This paper aims to investigate preliminary the airflow within differently oriented support structures and to provide design guidelines to enhance their cleanability, especially the depowdering of them. Design/methodology/approach: This study investigates the cleanability of support structures in powder bed fusion technology. Digital models of cleaning operations were designed through computer-aided engineering systems. Simulations of the airflow running into the powder entrapped within the thin walls of auxiliary supports were implemented by computational fluid dynamics. This approach was applied to a set of randomly generated geometrical configurations to determine the air turbulence intensity depending on their design. Findings: The resul ts, which are based on the assumption that a relationship exists between turbulence and powder removal effectiveness, demonstrated that the maximum cleanability is obtainable through specific relative rotations between consecutive support structures. Furthermore, it was possible to highlight the considerable influence of the auxiliary structures next to the fluid inlet. These relevant findings establish optimal design rules for the cleanability of parts manufactured by powder bed fusion processes. Originality/value: This study presents a preliminary investigation into the cleanability of support structures in laser powder bed fusion, which has not been addressed by previous literature. The results allow for a better understanding of the fluid dynamics during cleaning operations. New guidelines to enhance the cleanability of support structures are provided based on the results of simulations.
PublicationБагатодротове дугове зварювання високоміцних дрібнозернистих сталей під флюсомEnsuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed
PublicationWolframschmelzcarbidbasierte MMC-Schichten für den industriellen Einsatz im FormenbauZur Steigerung der abrasiven Verschleißbeständigkeit können Oberflächen lokal mit Hartpartikeln verstärkt werden. Diese sogenannten Metal-Matrix-Composit(MMC)-Schichten können mittels Laserstrahldispergieren gefertigt und durch Mikrofräsen nachbearbeitet werden. Im hier vorgestellten Forschungsvorhaben wurde als Grundwerkstoff verwendete Aluminiumbronze (CuAl10Ni5Fe4) mit Wolframschmelzcarbid verstärkt. Der Hartpartikelgehalt kann dabei durch eine Steigerung des Pulvermassenstroms bis zur Packungsdichte des unverarbeiteten Pulvers erhöht werden. Über eine temperaturbasierte Leistungsregelung kann eine gleichbleibend homogene MMC-Schicht mit konstanter Dicke und Tiefe dispergiert werden. Durch das Mikrofräsen mit optimierten Parametern können qualitativ hochwertige MMC-Oberflächen für den industriellen Einsatz in Spritzgusswerkzeugen hergestellt werden. Dabei wurde vor allem der Zahnvorschub fz als kritischer Prozessparameter identifiziert.
PublicationOptimizing the sharpening process of hybrid-bonded diamond grinding wheels by means of a process model( 2022)
;Uhlmann, E.Muthulingam, A.The grinding wheel topography influences the cutting performance and thus the economic efficiency of a grinding process. In contrary to conventional grinding wheels, super abrasive grinding wheels should undergo an additional sharpening process after the initial profiling process to obtain a suitable microstructure of the grinding wheel. Due to the lack of scientific knowledge, the sharpening process is mostly performed manually in industrial practice. A CNC-controlled sharpening process can not only improve the reproducibility of grinding processes but also decrease the secondary processing time and thereby increase the economic efficiency significantly. To optimize the sharpening process, experimental investigations were carried out to identify the significant sharpening parameters influencing the grinding wheel topography. The sharpening block width lSb, the grain size of the sharpening block dkSb and the area-related material removal in sharpening VâSb were identi fied as the most significant parameters. Additional experiments were performed to further quantify the influence of the significant sharpening parameters. Based on that, a process model was developed to predict the required sharpening parameters for certain target topographies. By using the process model, constant work results and improved process reliability can be obtained.
PublicationStudy on the transition behavior of the bulging effect during deep penetration laser beam welding( 2022)
;Artinov, A. ;Meng, X. ;Bachmann, M.Rethmeier, M.The present work is devoted to the study of the transition behavior of the recently confirmed widening of the weld pool, known as the bulging effect, during high-power deep penetration laser beam welding of thick unalloyed steel sheets. A three-dimensional transient multi-physics numerical model is developed, allowing for the prediction of the bulge formation and the study of its temporal behavior. The model is generalized to account automatically for the transition from partial to complete penetration. Several experimental measurements and observations, such as drilling period, weld pool length, temperature, efficiency, and metallographic cross-sections are used to verify the model and assure the plausibility of the numerical results. The analysis of the calculated temperature and velocity distributions, as well as the evolution of the keyhole geometry, show that the formation of a bulging region strongly depends on the penetration depth of the weld. Based on the numerical results, the bulge is found to occur transiently, having its transition from a slight bulge to a fully developed bulging between penetration depths of 6 mm and 9 mm, respectively.
PublicationHigh-stiffness Control of Series Elastic Actuators using a Noise Reduction Disturbance Observer( 2022)
;Asignacion, A. ;Haninger, K. ;Oh, S.Lee, H.Rendering a high impedance on a series-elastic actuator (SEA) can improve motion control performance while retaining collision safety by a lower physical stiffness. The safe impedance range can be increased with high gain velocity feedback control, but in practice this is limited by noise. This paper applies the noise reduction disturbance observer (NRDOB) to inner-loop velocity control of an SEA, attenuating noise and allowing higher safe rendered stiffness compared with standard torque and torque/velocity hierarchical control. Closed-form expressions for maximum passive stiffness and Z-region are found, shown to depend strongly on the high-frequency noise gain, and used to optimize the control gains. Performance is experimentally verified on a reaction-force SEA; validating the passivity of the high stiffness control in impact (free space and stiff environment) while rendering a safe stiffness 3.0 times the intrinsic stiffness.