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As an application-oriented research organisation, Fraunhofer aims to conduct highly innovative and solution-oriented research - for the benefit of society and to strengthen the German and European economy.



Fraunhofer is tackling the current challenges facing industry head on. By pooling their expertise and involving industrial partners at an early stage, the Fraunhofer Institutes involved in the projects aim to turn original scientific ideas into marketable products as quickly as possible.



Scientific achievement and practical relevance are not opposites - at Fraunhofer they are mutually dependent. Thanks to the close organisational links between Fraunhofer Institutes and universities, science at Fraunhofer is conducted at an internationally first-class level.



The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft is the leading organisation for applied research in Europe. Institutes and research facilities work under its umbrella at various locations throughout Germany.

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    Tongue pressure and oral conditions affect volatile release from liquid systems in a model mouth
    ( 2012)
    Benjamin, O.
    Silcock, P.
    Buettner, Andrea
    Everett, D.W.
    The release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the mouth cavity is an integral part of the way flavor is perceived. An in vitro model mouth with an artificial tongue was developed to measure the dynamic release of VOCs from liquid model systems [e.g., aqueous solution, oil, and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions] under oral conditions. The release of seven selected VOCs was affected by the different polarity and vapor pressure of the compounds and their affinity to the liquid system media. Different tongue pressure patterns were applied to the liquid systems, and the release of VOCs was monitored in real time using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. The release was significantly more intense for longer tongue pressure duration and was influenced by the tongue altering the sample surface area and the distribution of the VOCs. The role of saliva (artificial versus human) and the sample temperature had a significant effect on VOC release. Saliva containing mucin and a higher sample temperature enhanced the release.
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