Light trapping gratings for solar cells: An analytical period optimization approach
Solar cells can harvest incident sunlight very efficiently by utilizing grating-based light trapping. As the working principle of such gratings strongly depends on the number as well as the propagation directions of the diffraction orders, the grating period is a key parameter. We present an analytical model for optimizing the grating period, focusing on its impact on light path enhancement and outcoupling probability. Based on the presented model, we formulate guidelines to maximize light trapping in state-of-the-art high-end solar cells. The model increases the understanding of the grating performance in systems like the III-V//Si triple junction solar cell achieving record efficiency.