Application of laser surface nanotexturing for the reduction of peri-implantitis on biomedical grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V dental abutments
The annual revenue of dental implants is estimated on 33 billion USD in 2019 and the efforts to keep the teeth functionality and aesthetics is continuously growing over the years. However, loosening of dental implants induced by infection is still a critical and common problem worldwide. In this scenario, the development of new implant manufacturing strategies is of utmost importance. Every surface exposed in the oral cavity, both the tooth and the implant surface, are covered by a layer of salivary proteins, the so-called pellicle. The initial formation of a pellicle is followed by the attachment of bacterial cells onto it. Well-developed biofilms on dental implant surfaces become the main source of pathogenic microbes causing Peri-Implantitis, which is one of the main causes of dental implant failure. The surface topography and chemical composition of an implant are key factors in controlling surface wettability, which directly affects the formation of the biological films. In this sense, ultrafast laser surface nanotexturing rises as a promising advanced technology for controlling implant surface biological properties. Laser-processing parameters such as laser wavelength l, fluence F and number of pulses N are essential for surface texturing. Thus, this paper presents promising results on the influence of different laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on the composition of the pellicle and the biofilm formation on biomedical grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V dental abutments. Moreover, a biofilm reactor was built and adapted to assess the effect of the LIPSS on the biofilm formation.