A new approach for dry metal forming: CO2 as volatile lubrication in combination with hard and low friction coatings
Nowadays, it is more important than ever to meet the increasing technical and statutory requirements and to develop new process strategies. In sheet metal forming the low consumption of oil lubrication gets an increasingly important role. The aim in sheet metal forming is to reduce the amounts of lubricants. In the long term, the future sheet metal processing should be able to completely dispense without mineral oil-containing lubricants. Two promising approaches for a dry process design are combined in this paper for the first time and the fundamental feasibility of this new hybrid technology is shown. On the one hand, a novel approach for temporary lubrication of deep-drawing processes with CO2 as a volatile medium is used. On the other hand, it is supported by the application of an additional hard coating system such as a silicon nitride (Si3N4) or tungsten doped a-C:H multilayered (Cr/CrNx/a-C:H:W/a-C:H) coating system to further reduce tool wear and wear debris of the formed sheets made of DC04 (mat. no.: 1.0338). The results show a low coefficient of friction and reduced wear. Especially for the carbon coating system, there is minor tool wear at a higher surface pressure. By means of the graphite constituent, even a smoothening of the roughness peaks can be recorded. The next step would be the implementation of this hybrid technology on a tool for deep drawing a rectangular cup.