Increasing the efficiency of multicrystalline silicon PERC solar cells from currently 19% to 20%
We discuss a detailed analysis of the potential efficiency improvements of state-of-the-art industrial p-type multicrystalline silicon solar cells with passivated emitter and rear with an average energy conversion efficiency of 19.0%. The aim is to identify the limitations of cells currently fabricated in industry, not of record laboratory cells, and to demonstrate approaches for research institutes and industry to further optimise the devices using industrially applicable processes. According to the analysis, front surface reflection of the active cell area bears the largest potential for increasing the efficiency by replacing the standard acidic texture by a honeycomb texture, which is estimated to improve the efficiency from 19% to 20%. Reducing shading and recombination at the front metal is the second largest potential efficiency increase. We expect that reducing the metal finger width from 50 mm to 40 mm or below is feasible and increases the efficiency further to 20.2%.