Influence of process induced damages on joint strength when self-pierce riveting carbon fiber reinforced plastics with aluminum
Einfluss prozessbedingter Schädigungen auf die Verbindungfestigkeit beim Halbhohlstanznieten von CFK mit Aluminium
The importance of environment friendly mobility strengthens the need of lightweight design in the automotive industry. New electric car models, like the BMW i3, already have car body with a high amount of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) to allow, as a result of the low vehicle weight, appropriate ranges without reloading the battery. Methods for joining materials like CFRP play a key role to implement lightweight designs into car body production. Conventional joining methods like spot welding cannot be used for such material combinations. Due to the good automation and possible combination with adhesive, mechanical joining techniques such as self-pierce riveting (SPR) are very relevant for joining these lightweight materials. While generally self-pierce riveting of CFRP with aluminium is possible, different damages e.g. delaminations, fiber or matrix fractures in the CFRP can occur during the joining process and have to be considered. This paper shows an analysis of these process induced damages when self-pierce riveting CFRP compound with aluminum sheet metal and investigates their influence on the joint strength. In our research the conventional SPR process of CFRP-aluminium joints is compared to the application of a new die concept for SPR in which a separated die is used to reduce the process induced delaminations in the CFRP. Additionally, these joining results are contrasted to SPR joints with pre-drilled CFRP components. Through the pre-drilling the damages in the CFRP can nearly be avoided completely and so these joints can be used as a reference. The results of the three processes to produce CFRP-aluminum joints are compared by micrographs, computed tomography and strength tests.