Quantitative analysis of marker segmentation for C-arm pose based navigation
Intraoperative C-arm fluoroscopy is used for better instrument guidance during bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, C-arm images do not provide depth information. But, offering 3D instrument localization would enable faster and more accurate guidance of the bronchoscope. Using the C-arm pose, this can be achieved by combining intraoperative fluoroscopy with a preoperative CT. Thus, the 3D position of the bronchoscope tip inside the bronchial tree can be located and visualized. We developed a marker plate for C-arm pose estimation, which is placed on the patient table. The markers are made of steel and appear in two different shapes: spheres and sticks. Detecting the markers is essential for the C-arm pose estimation method. In this work, we present and evaluate two detection methods for detecting the projected markers on the fluoroscopy images. Tests on cadaver images showed very good results regarding robustness and precision: For circles and lines, 80% and 85%, respectively, of all visible markers were detected, whereas only 1% and 3%, respectively, of all detected markers were missegmented.