Multi-technique study of carbon contamination and cleaning of Mo/Si multilayer optics exposed to pulsed EUV radiation
Comparative lifetime studies of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors have been conducted at the Exposure Test Stand (ETS) using a pulsed Xe-discharge EUV source at XTREME Technologies GmbH (Göttingen, Germany). Due to the large, homogeneous exposed sample area a multi-technique study of EUV induced carbon contamination and cleaning can be conducted using standard surface science techniques. EUV-reflectometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), small-angle X-ray reflectometry (SAXR), and Out-of-band (OOB) reflectometry (200 - 1000 nm) were applied to investigate exposed samples and study EUV-induced changes of the surface composition. With this approach the influence of EUV-dose, cleaning-gas pressure and composition, and capping-layer material of the Mo/Si multilayer samples on the degradation and cleaning mechanism can be studied.