Bio-Based Epoxy Resins Based on Linseed Oil Cured with Naturally Occurring Acids
Structural properties of resins based on epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) were investigated in reference to varying amounts of the hardener components methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA), pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and maleic acid (MA). This includes gel time and the Shore A and D hardness. The shortest gel time of 0.9 min and the highest Shore A and D hardness of 85 and 34 were found at a n(MTHPA)/n(PMDA)/n(MA) molar ratio of 8/1/8. To study the effect of the ELO mass on gel time and hardness, different masses of ELO (8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 g) were used, keeping the amount of the hardener system (4 g) (MTHPA, PMDA and MA) constant. With increased ELO mass, gel time increased while the Shore A and D hardness of the samples did not differ when up to 14 g ELO was applied. Substitution of petrol-based PMDA with biogenic compounds, specifically oxalic acid and citric acid, resulted in new bio-based epoxy resins with shorter gel times while maintaining hardness.