An active-system approach for eliminating the wolf note on a cello
Wolf notes are generally undesirable sounds that occur in string instruments, particularly in cellos. State-of-the-art passive wolf note eliminators affect the whole cello sound and can become ineffective when environmental conditions and, therefore, the cello's structural properties change. In this paper, an approach is presented that uses smart materials to eliminate the wolf note with little effects to the cello's sound. Based on preliminary measurements, a mathematical model of the cello for generating the wolf note and for developing a wolf note elimination controller is set up. The controller consists of a wolf detection criterion that triggers a velocity feedback controller to actively induce damping into the cello's body whenever a wolf note is detected. The controller setup is experimentally validated by an implementation on a test cello. The velocity feedback to induce the active damping is implemented by means of a piezoelectric patch actuator attached to the cello's body. Both the results of the mathematical model and the results of the experimental investigation show a good performance in eliminating the wolf note on a cello.