ECD wafer bumping and packaging for pixel detector applications
Several hybrid pixel detectors have been manufactured at Fraunhofer IZM. The applications vary from x-ray detection for medical diagnostics to particle detection for fundamental physical research. The different number of readout chips on one sensor substrate and the number of modules for the assembly of the whole detector require different manufacture technologies from single chip processing up to processing on wafer level. The pixel interconnection bumps are produced by SnPb, SnAg or AuSn electroplating. The details of the process flow from sputtering of plating base up to flip chip assembly will be decribed in the first part of the paper. In the second part examples of hybrid pixel detectors manufactured at Fraunhofer IZM are described more in detail, e.g. assembly of modules for the ATLAS and CMS detector at the LHC, the assembly of detector prototypes using CVD diamond as sensor material and the assembly of GaAs x-ray pixel imaging detectors.