Characterization of thin ZnO films by vacuum ultra-violet reflectometry
ZnO has a huge potential and is already a crucial material in a range of key technologies from photovoltaics to opto and printed electronics. ZnO is being characterized by versatile metrologies to reveal electrical, optical, structural and other parameters with the aim of process optimization for best device performance. The aim of the present work is to reveal the capabilities of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) reflectometry for the characterization of ZnO films of nominally 50 nm, doped by Ga and In. Optical metrologies have already shown to be able to sensitively measure the gap energy, the exciton strength, the density, the surface nanoroughness and a range of technologically important structural and material parameters. It has also been shown that these optical properties closely correlate with the most important electrical properties like the carrier density and hence the specific resistance of the film. We show that VUV reflectometry is a highly sensitive optical metho d that is capable of the characterization of crucial film properties. Our results have been cross-checked by reference methods such as ellipsometry and X-ray fluorescence.