Direct-writing of three-dimensional structures using laser-based processes
Three-dimensional structures of selected materials can be written directly to the precise locations required using laser exposure of suitable gaseous precursor mixtures. Writing speeds exceeding 50 mu m/s can be achieved. Examples presented in this work include the creation of a tiny time-of-flight laser ionization mass spectrometer, laser-driven movable micro-objects, and an ac electric-field microcage for storage, handling, and transferring small neutral objects in aqueous solution. The impact for laser-controlled site-selective growth of carbon nanotube cables is demonstrated.