Large-Signal Equivalent-Circuit Model of Asymmetric Electrostatic Transducers
This article presents a circuit model that is able to capture the full nonlinear behavior of an asymmetric electrostatic transducer whose dynamics are governed by a single degree of freedom. Effects such as stress-stiffening and pull-in are accounted for. The simulation of a displacement-dependent capacitor and a nonlinear spring is accomplished with arbitrary behavioral sources, which are a standard component of circuit simulators. As an application example, the parameters of the model were fitted to emulate the behavior of an electrostatic MEMS loudspeaker whose finite-element (FEM) simulations and acoustic characterisation where already reported in the literature. The obtained waveforms show good agreement with the amplitude and distortion that was reported both in the transient FEM simulations and in the experimental measurements. This model is also used to predict the performance of this device as a microphone, coupling it to a two-stage charge amplifier. Additional complex behaviors can be introduced to this network model if it is required.