Perovskite Hybrid Evaporation/ Spin Coating Method: From Band Gap Tuning to Thin Film Deposition on Textures
Most efficient perovskite solar cells are synthesized by the one-step spin coating method. However, when applied on µm-sized textures, e.g. for efficient monolithic perovskite silicon tandems, no conformal film formation is achieved. In this respect, we investigate hybrid evaporation/ spin coating for mixed cation mixed halide perovskite absorbers [HC(NH2)2]0.83Cs0.17Pb(I1-xBrx)3 (x = 0-0.28). By control of the 2nd deposition step, we demonstrate systematic band gap tuning from 1.54 to 1.75 eV. Moreover, critical criteria for synthesis and underlying charge transport materials (CTM) are determined by investigation of planar as well as scaffolded electron transport layers. Regarding the applicability on textures, the tandem-relevant 1.7 eV high band gap absorber is deposited on planar, pyramidal, and spiky black silicon to investigate crystallization and layer formation dependent on the substrate's topography. We recommend the presented hybrid method for realization of dense crystalline perovskite films with flat surface, deposition on planar CTM, and textured Si-based tandems with random pyramids.