Total cost of mobility. Towards a holistic assessment of environmental and economical costs of individual mobility
Life-cycle consideration of ecological and economical impacts becomes increasingly important for the development of vehicles with alternative propulsion concepts. This paper concerns the development of a parametric vehicle model to analyze energy-, resource-, and cost-efficiency of existing and future vehicle concepts. Modeling results support multi-criteria decision making for OEMs and suppliers (development), mobility providers (financing and business models), and politics (legislation).