SAHARA - Systematic Approach for Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment
With the upcoming introduction of ISO DIS 26262 the awareness for safety in automotive systems has relumed. The standard describes a safety process starting with the Item Definition and with a Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment (H+R). Hazards and their related risks affect all manufacturers in the same way. Hence, a common understanding and appraisal of Hazards should be established in a systematic way. Therefore, comparability, and consistency among H+Rs of different persons, different groups or even different companies should be established. Furthermore, the consistency of the Item Definition, the H+R, and following safety engineering activities has to be assured. The challenge is that H+Rs are solely based on creativity techniques, which produce an informal representation of information (usually an Excel sheet). This makes it hard to impossible to systematically analyse, compare, and reuse H+R results or to ensure the consistency in a holistic safety engineering process without a significant effort. Numerous methods, and techniques for formalisations und structuring of processes and artefacts in safety critical development exist, but most of those deal with challenges arising once a hazard is defined and one is interested in its origin, or its mitigation strategy. The research and practical approaches to support the prerequisite for all the other techniques, the hazard analysis and risk assessment, is still weak. Therefore, SAHARA's goal is to close this gap by providing a more formal and semantically enriched approach for defining hazards and assessing their risks. The condensed information necessary form ISO DIS 26262 point of view is (1) the situation analysis (2) hazard identification and analysis, and (3) a classification of the contributing factors exposure, severity, and controllability, which results in an ASIL assignment for each hazard. SAHARA yields the benefit of producing machine processable artefacts, and therefore enables comparability, consistency, reusability for increasing the confidence, quality, and efficiency of H+Rs.