Temporal synchronization of marked MPEG video frames based on image hash system
Most of the MPEG watermarking schemes can only be embedded into I-frames. The other frames will not be marked. Different attacks like frame rate changing can change the frame type of the marked I-frames. Thus the watermark could be detected from wrong I-frames. Due to these attacks an important issue of digital watermarking solutions for MPEG video is the temporal synchronization of the video material to the proportions before the attacks to detect the watermark successfully. The synchronization information can be embed as part of the information watermark or as a second watermark. The weakness point is with the destruction of the synchronization information the watermark can not be detected more. We provide a solution which analyzes the I-frames based on a robust image hash system. The hash solution was developed for JPEG images and can also be used for MPEG I-frames because of their similar structure. The hash values are robust against common manipulations, like compr ession, and can be used to detect the marked frames also after manipulations at the video material. We analyze the usability of the image hash system and develop a concept based on video and MPEG properties.