A study of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on keyhole dynamics and defect mitigation in laser beam welding
In this paper, the highly transient keyhole dynamics, e.g., laser absorption, keyhole geometry, and fluctuation, etc., under a magnetic field are investigated using an experimental approach and multi-physical modeling. The model provides accurate predictions to the variation of penetration depth and weld pool profiles caused by the MHD effect, which is validated by the measurements of optical micrographs and in-situ metal/glass observation. The micro-X-ray computed tomography shows a remarkable reduction of keyhole-induced porosity with the magnetic field. The correlation between the porosity mitigation and the weld pool dynamics influenced by the magnetic field is built comprehensively. It is found that the magnetic field gives a direct impact on the laser energy absorption at the keyhole front wall by changing the protrusion movement. The porosity mitigation comes from multiple physical aspects, including keyhole stabilization, widening of the bubble floating channel, and the electromagnetic expulsive force. Their contributions vary according to the bubble size. The findings provide a deeper insight into the relationship between electromagnetic parameters, keyhole dynamics, and suppression of keyhole-relevant defects.