Main-Group Halide Semiconductors Derived from Perovskite: Distinguishing Chemical, Structural, and Electronic Aspects
Main-group halide perovskites have generated much excitement of late because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties, ease of preparation, and abundant constituent elements, but these curious and promising materials differ in important respects from traditional semiconductors. The distinguishing chemical, structural, and electronic features of these materials present the key to understanding the origins of the optoelectronic performance of the well-studied hybrid organic-inorganic lead halides and provide a starting point for the design and preparation of new functional materials. Here we review and discuss these distinguishing features, among them a defect-tolerant electronic structure, proximal lattice instabilities, labile defect migration, and, in the case of hybrid perovskites, disordered molecular cations. Additionally, we discuss the preparation and characterization of some alternatives to the lead halide perovskites, including lead-free bismuth halides and hybrid materials with optically and electronically active organic constituents.