Effects on the distortion of Inconel 718 components along a hybrid laser-based additive manufacturing process chain using laser powder bed fusion and laser metal deposition
The combination of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), known for its geometrical freedom and accuracy, and the nozzle-based laser metal deposition process (LMD), known for its high build-up rates, has great potential to reduce the additive manufacturing times for large metallic parts. For the industrial application of the LPBF-LMD hybrid process chain, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the LMD process on the LPBF substrate. In addition, the build plate material also has a significant impact on the occurrence of distortion along the additive manufacturing process chain. In the literature, steel build plates are often used in laser-based additive manufacturing processes of Inconel 718, since a good metallurgical bonding can be assured whilst reducing costs in the production and restoration of the build plates. This paper examines the distortion caused by LMD material deposition and the influence of the build plate material along the hybrid additive manufacturing process chain. Twin cantilevers are manufactured by LPBF and an additional layer is subsequently deposited with LMD. The distortion is measured in the as-built condition as well as after heat treatment. The effect of different LMD hatch strategies on the distortion is determined. The experiments are conducted using the nickel-base alloy Inconel 718. The results show a significant influence of LMD path strategies on distortion, with shorter tool paths leading to less distortion. The remaining distortion after heat treatment is considerably dependent on the material of the build plate.