Coaxial electrospun nanofibers as drug delivery system for local treatment of periodontitis
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to prepare resorbable polylactide fibers for periodontitis treatment using coaxial electrospinning to optimize the release of metronidazole (MNA) by reducing the initial burst effect. METHODS: Poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) fibers mats with different distributions of metronidazole (MNA) were manufactured by coaxial electrospinning (COAX). By COAX spinning the central core of the fiber was enriched with 40% MNA (m/m), while the sheath of the fiber consisted of PLA only (test group). In contrast, fibers of the control group were prepared by conventional electrospinning with the same amount of MNA but with a homogenous drug distribution (HDD - homogenously distributed drug). The release of MNA was determined by analyzing aliquots from the fiber mats using UV-VIS spectroscopy. Agar diffusion tests were carried out to determine the antibacterial effect on periodontopathogenic bacteria. Biocompatibility was tested in direct contact to human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) for two days. RESULTS: The COAX mats showed a retarded drug release compared to the conventional HDD fibers. After 24h, 64% of total MNA was released cumulatively from the COAX fibers while 90% of the MNA was released from the HDD fibers (controls). The antibacterial effect of COAX fibers was significantly higher after 24h compared to the HDD fibers. Cell cultivation revealed significant higher numbers of vital cells among the COAX mats. SIGNIFICANCE: COAX fibers showed improved sustained MNA release compared to conventional fibers and can be seen as potential drug delivery systems in local periodontitis treatment.
Watts, David C.