Analysis and performance of dispensed and screen printed front side contacts at cell and module level
In this paper, the potential of applied contact geometries by dispensing, single and double screen printing, are analyzed with respective modeling and simulations at cell and module level. Industrial Cz-Si p-type 156x156 mm² Al-BSF cells are processed to compare the measured values with the estimated ones. A parallel ten nozzle fine line unit is used to print the dispensed fingers while for the screen printing technology, the standard process is applied. An in-depth characterization of the metal contacts by means of laser confocal microscopy, spectrally resolved light beam induced current and micro-light beam induced current (SR-LBIC and LBIC, respectively) is conducted and respective values are applied for predicting cell and module results based on these geometrical parameters. Finally, resulting calculations are compared with measured results. The highest efficiency values are obtained for the dispensing technology, up to 19.3% on cell level and 18.3% on module level after light induced degradation (LID). The intent of this paper is to obtain the mathematical expressions of cell and module parameters to determine the factors with the highest influence over them. By this, an improvement in the fabrication process can be achieved to enhance their electrical performance and reduce the fabrication costs.