An Evaluation of Pie Menus for System Control in Virtual Reality
While natural interaction techniques in virtual reality (VR) seem suitable for most tasks such as navigation and manipulation, force-fitting natural metaphors for system control is often inconvenient for the user. Focusing on traditional 2D techniques like pie menus and exploiting their potential in VR offers a promising approach. Given that, we design and examine the four pie menus pick ray (PR), pick hand (PH), hand rotation (HR) and stick rotation (SR), addressing usability, user experience (UX), presence, error rate and selection time. In terms of UX and usability, PH was rated significantly better compared to HR and SR; PR was rated better compared to SR. Presence was not affected by menu design. Selection times for PH were significantly reduced compared to SR. PH and PR resulted in significantly decreased error rates compared to SR and HR respectively. Based on these findings, we eventually derive implications for developers of VR applications.