Self-Tracking and Gamification: Analyzing the Interplay of Motivations, Usage and Motivation Fulfillment
The usage of wearable self-tracking devices has emerged as a big trend in lifestyle and personal optimization concerning health, fitness, and well-being. In this context, gamification elements have the potential to contribute to achieving desired user behavior. However, it is not fully understood to which extent the users perceive their self-tracking motivations as being fulfilled through the usage of a wearable self-tracking device, and how gamification affects the interplay of self-tracking motivations, wearable self-tracking device usage, and motivation fulfillment. To address this research gap, we develop a conceptual model and validate it with survey research and structural equation modeling. We find that self-tracking helps users to unexpectedly fulfill motivations without previously striving for them and that significant differences exist between the gamification users and non-users with respect to their motivations by selfentertainment and self-design.