Hardware Trojans. Current challenges and approaches
More and more manufacturers outsource parts of the design and fabrication of integrated circuits (ICs) for cost reduction. Recent publications show that such outsourcing can pose serious threats to governments and corporations, as they lose control of the development process. Until now, the threat of hardware Trojans is mostly considered during fabrication. Third party intellectual properties (IPs) are also gaining importance as companies wish to reduce costs and shorten the time-to-market. Through this study, the authors argue that the threat of Trojans is spread throughout the whole IC development chain. They give a survey of both hardware Trojan insertion possibilities and detection techniques. Furthermore, they identify the key vulnerabilities at each stage of IC development and describe costs of hardware Trojan insertion and detection. This way, the threat level based on feasibility of Trojan insertion and the practicability of Trojan detection techniques is evaluated. Lately, detection techniques address the issue of including third party IP. However, those techniques are not sufficient and need more research to effectively protect the design. In this way, the authors' analysis provides a solid base to identify the issues during IC development, which should be addressed with higher priority by all entities involved in the IC development.