A Genetic Algorithm Approach as a Self-Learning and Optimization Tool for PV Power Simulation and Digital Twinning
A key aspect for achieving a high-accuracy Photovoltaic (PV) power simulation, and reliable digital twins, is a detailed description of the PV system itself. However, such information is not always accurate, complete, or even available. This work presents a novel approach to learn features of unknown PV systems or subsystems using genetic algorithm optimization. Based on measured PV power, this approach learns and optimizes seven PV system parameters: nominal power, tilt and azimuth angles, albedo, irradiance and temperature dependency, and the ratio of nominal module to nominal inverter power (DC/AC ratio). By optimizing these parameters, we create a digital twin that accurately reflects the actual properties and behaviors of the unknown PV systems or subsystems. To develop this approach, on-site measured power, ambient temperature, and satellite-derived irradiance of a PV system located in south-west Germany are used. The approach proposed here achieves a mean bias error of about 10% for nominal power, 3° for azimuth and tilt angles, between 0.01%/C and 0.09%/C for temperature coefficient, and now-casts with an accuracy of around 6%. In summary, we present a new solution to parametrize and simulate PV systems accurately with limited or no previous knowledge of their properties and features.