Nanometals in energetic systems: Achievements and future
The characterization of nanometals that are mostly produced by electrical explosion of wires and a comprehensive survey of their usage in different energetic systems are presented. The greatest attention is devoted to nanoaluminum, which is the most common representative of nanometals. The improved kinetic characteristics of chemically reacting systems typical for nanometals (such as burning and detonation rate enhancement for propellants, explosives, and thermites) are studied, and novel paths for chemical reactions are opened (such as nitrides formation in oxygenated media and the catalytic effect on the decomposition of energetic materials). A poor correlation between the powder properties and the slow oxidation parameters was found as a result of very wide scatter in the nanometals characteristics. The burning rate enhancement factor (K) was analyzed for nanoaluminum-loaded solid propellants. The most promising energetic systems are nanometal-loaded solid fuels that are HTPB and ice based with chemically inert matrices.