Family Tree for Aqueous Organic Redox Couples for Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes: A Conceptual Review
Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are an increasingly attractive option for renewable energy storage, thus providing flexibility for the supply of electrical energy. In recent years, research in this type of battery storage has been shifted from metal-ion based electrolytes to soluble organic redox-active compounds. Aqueous-based organic electrolytes are considered as more promising electrolytes to achieve ""green"", safe, and low-cost energy storage. Many organic compounds and their derivatives have recently been intensively examined for application to redox flow batteries. This work presents an up-to-date overview of the redox organic compound groups tested for application in aqueous RFB. In the initial part, the most relevant requirements for technical electrolytes are described and discussed. The importance of supporting electrolytes selection, the limits for the aqueous system, and potential synthetic strategies for redox molecules are highlighted. The different organic redox couples described in the literature are grouped in a ""family tree"" for organic redox couples. This article is designed to be an introduction to the field of organic redox flow batteries and aims to provide an overview of current achievements as well as helping synthetic chemists to understand the basic concepts of the technical requirements for next-generation energy storage materials.