Analyse der technisch-wirtschaftlichen Ausstrahlungseffekte der Raumfahrtforschung mit Hilfe von Patentindikatoren
Until now, spin-offs from space technology have been analyzed by means of interviews conducted in the firms involved, a process harbouring a whole series of uncertainty factors. Potential spin-off fields are frequently ignored, and alleged transfers from space research often in reality stem from other sources. This survey develops an objective method of describing technology transfer based on patent-indicators. The first step was to establish online a total of some 3000 space patents filed since 1975 with destination to the European and American markets. This record is sufficient to permit an analysis of the RuD activities undertaken by the leading industrial nations in the space sector. With further assistance provided by the leading industrial nations in the space sector. With further assistance provided by the method of analyzing patent citations, however, it is then possible to discover spin-off effects in areas outside space technology, which are nevertheless closely related in te chnical terms to the basic space patents with which they are associated. In this way, it is possible to define areas which are particulary suited to adopt space technologies in earthbound applications. This method of analyzing citations, which in principle is familiar for describing technology transfer within any one technical field, has thus been successfully employed for the first time for analyzing spin-offs.