Industry related approaches for bifacial p-type PERX solar cells
The authors discuss industry related approaches at Fraunhofer ISE for bifacial p-type silicon solar cells, taking into account the well-known "passivated emitter and rear cell" (PERC), "passivated emitter and rear totally diffused" (PERT) and "passivated emitter and locally diffused" (PERL) architectures. In the case of PERC, challenges in terms of alignment, printability and the importance of bifaciality are addressed. In the case of PERT, a co-diffusion process is utilized to form the emitter and the back surface field simultaneously avoiding also critical shunts that can arise at the edges of such devices. For the PERL technology, the industrial feasible pPassDop approach is discussed. We report on front side energy conversion efficiencies for PERC of 21.4%, PERT of 20.5%, and PERL of 19.8%. Furthermore, bifaciality factors for PERC of 0.7, for PERT of 0.86, and for PERL of 0.89 are presented.