Efficiency-limiting recombination in multicrystalline silicon solar cells
This work presents recent advances in the characterisation of carrier recombination and impurities at Fraunhofer ISE. The role of iron contamination during crystallisation is analysed in more detail. Numerical simulations and comparisons to experimental data are presented which demonstrate the impact of iron from the crucible and crucible coating and show the in-diffusion of iron into the silicon melt as well as into the solid silicon during crystal cooling. Measurements of spatially resolved carrier lifetime and interstitial iron concentration on wafers after phosphorus diffusion gettering are used as input for cell efficiency modelling which reveals the specific and quantitative role of iron on cell parameters in multicrystalline silicon. A new photoluminescence based method is presented which quantitatively determines the interstitial iron concentration in finished solar cells. We finally present advances in defect characterisation with sub-micrometre resolution: We show recent progress in micro photoluminescence spectroscopy for the quantitative measurement of interstitial chromium with high spatial resolution. A further development of this setup will be discussed: By combining the principle of Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) or voltage (LBIV) and the highly localized illumination, images of carrier recombination at local defects are presented which feature a, compared to EBIC, higher signal-to-noise ratio.