Cytocompatibility of Mats Prepared from Different Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers
Mats of cytocompatible polymer fibers are needed as scaffolds in tissue engineering or as wound healing supports. Most recently, they have emerged as matrix-material to allow for in situ chemo- and biosensing inside intact tissue fragments or surrogates. Electrospinning of such fibers from polymer solutions provides extended options to control the structural and functional properties of the resulting fiber mats. We have prepared electrospun polymeric fiber mats from poly(lactic acid) (PLA), polystyrene (PS), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) with two different fiber densities. Mats and individual fibers were characterized with respect to their dimensions, morphology, and their compatibility with human keratinocytes (HaCaT) selected as a biological model. Microscopic inspection revealed that HaCaT cells were viable on mats from all three polymers with only a negligible fraction of dead cells, similar to planar control surfaces. Growth in the presence of the fiber mats di d not alter cellular metabolism (ATP, redox state) and did not induce significant production of cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)). However, we did observe that fiber density changed the overall topography of the resulting mats and led to differences in the establishment of continuous cell sheets. In conclusion, the findings support the suitability of electrospun polymeric fiber mats made from PLA, PS, or PVP as potential biocompatible matrices for future two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) sensing of vital parameters from tissue in health and disease.