Enhanced up-conversion for photovoltaics via concentrating integrated optics
Concentrating optics are integrated into up-conversion photovoltaic (UC-PV) devices to independently concentrate sub-band-gap photons on the up-conversion layer, without affecting the full solar concentration on the overlying solar cell. The UC-PV devices consist of silicon solar cells optimized for up-conversion, coupled with tapered and parabolic dielectric concentrators, and hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride (-NaYF4) up-converter doped with 25% trivalent erbium (Er3+). A normalized external quantum efficiency of 1.75x102 cm2/W and 3.38x102 cm2/W was obtained for the UC-PV device utilizing tapered and parabolic concentrators respectively. Although low to moderate concentration was shown to maximize UC, higher concentration lead to saturation and reduced external quantum efficiency. The presented work highlights some of the implications associated with the development of UC-PV devices and designates a substantial step for integration in concentrating PV.