Towards an industrial laser doping process for the selective emitter using phosphoric acid as dopant
Different laser supported approaches have already been realized, proving the great potential of laserdoped selective emitters (LDSE). However, it is challenging to establish a low-cost process by using pulsed laser tools. So far a single-step process only leads to satisfying results utilizing cw-lasers. In this paper we have examined a two-step process to produce laser-doped selective emitters on multicrystalline textured standard silicon photovoltaic wafers (90-?/sq-Emitter, SiN-antireflection coating (ARC)). The precise ARC removal by near-infrared fs-laser pulses (30 fs, 800 nm), and the doping of uncoated silicon wafers by ns-laser pulses (8 ns, 532 nm) were systematically investigated. In the fs-experiment, optimum conditions for ARC removal were identified. In the nsexperiments under suitable conditions (melting regime), the phosphorous concentration underneath the wafer surface was significantly increased and the sheet resistance was reduced by nearly a factor of two. Moreover, electrical measurements on fired metallization fingers deposited on the laser processed wafers showed low contact resistances. Hence, wafer conditioning with combined fs-laser- and ns-laser-processes are expected to be a promising technology for producing selective emitters.